Component 1: Solar Panels
Solar panels are the core part of solar lamps and the most valuable part of solar lamps. Its function is to convert the radiation power of the sun into electrical energy, or send it to the battery for storage. Among the solar cells, the most common and practical ones are monocrystalline silicon solar cells and polycrystalline silicon solar cells. In the eastern and western regions with sufficient sunlight, it is better to use polycrystalline silicon solar cells, because the production process of polycrystalline silicon solar cells is relatively simple and the price is lower than that of single crystal. In the southern region where there are many rainy days and relatively insufficient sunshine, it is better to use monocrystalline silicon solar cells because the performance parameters of monocrystalline silicon solar cells are relatively stable.
Component 2: Solar Controller
Regardless of the size of the solar luminaire, a well-functioning charge-discharge controller is essential. So what are the important functions of the controller?
1: System Function
- Automatic Light Switch
- Automatic Power Reduction (meaning that when the battery voltage drops to the set voltage, the controller will start to reduce the output power of the light source according to a certain proportion to achieve the function of prolonging the rainy days. This function is actually a double-edged sword, the advantage is that it can greatly The disadvantage of extending the support time on a rainy day is that in the long-term continuous rainy season, the battery will be charged and discharged at a low potential for a long time, which increases the risk of battery overdraft and has a negative impact on the life of the battery. Lead-acid battery, it is very easy to over-discharge and shorten the life)
2: Protection Function
- Overcharge. Overcharge is an important function of protecting the battery from overcharging, which is very important to maximize the life of the battery
- Over Discharge. Over-discharge is also a protection for the battery. When the battery voltage is lower than the set protection voltage, the controller will turn off the load and stop the battery from consuming power. It will not start to discharge again until the battery voltage is recharged to the recovery voltage.
- Wiring Protection. The wiring protection includes reverse connection protection, short circuit protection, and open circuit protection, which are all protections for the load. If the load has reverse connection, short circuit, or open circuit, the controller will turn off the output to the load. However, if the battery and solar panel are connected incorrectly, the controller cannot be protected, so be careful when wiring. The wrong wiring of batteries and solar panels may directly damage the controller.
The above are the two important components of solar lights. A solar light can work and light up normally, and these two components are also indispensable. Let’s take a look at the lighting effect of solar lights in our real life.